Homo sapiens Linnaeus , Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforcing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy. New York, Routledge, Error when adding to shopping collection.
Technology has allowed humans to colonize six of the Earth 's seven continents and adapt to virtually all climates. However the human population is not uniformly distributed on the Earth 's surface, because the population density varies from one region to another and there are large areas almost completely uninhabited, like Antarctica. With a population of over seven billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals.
Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time. As of October , no other celestial body has been visited by humans, although there has been a continuous human presence in space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on 31 October Since , the human population has increased from one billion  to over seven billion.
In , some 2. In February , the U. Both overall population numbers and the proportion residing in cities are expected to increase significantly in the coming decades. Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. Humans are apex predators , being rarely preyed upon by other species.
Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology. The human body consists of the legs , the torso , the arms, the neck , and the head. An adult human body consists of about trillion 10 14 cells. The most commonly defined body systems in humans are the nervous , the cardiovascular , the circulatory , the digestive , the endocrine , the immune , the integumentary , the lymphatic , the musculoskeletal , the reproductive , the respiratory , and the urinary system.
Humans, like most of the other apes , lack external tails , have several blood type systems, have opposable thumbs , and are sexually dimorphic. The comparatively minor anatomical differences between humans and chimpanzees are a result of human bipedalism. One difference is that humans have a far faster and more accurate throw than other animals.
Humans are also among the best long-distance runners in the animal kingdom, but slower over short distances. As a consequence of bipedalism, human females have narrower birth canals. The construction of the human pelvis differs from other primates , as do the toes. A trade-off for these advantages of the modern human pelvis is that childbirth is more difficult and dangerous than in most mammals , especially given the larger head size of human babies compared to other primates.
This means that human babies must turn around as they pass through the birth canal, which other primates do not do, and it makes humans the only species where females usually require help from their conspecifics other members of their own species to reduce the risks of birthing. As a partial evolutionary solution, human fetuses are born less developed and more vulnerable.
Chimpanzee babies are cognitively more developed than human babies until the age of six months, when the rapid development of human brains surpasses chimpanzees. Another difference between women and chimpanzee females is that women go through the menopause and become unfertile decades before the end of their lives.
All species of non-human apes are capable of giving birth until death. Menopause probably developed as it has provided an evolutionary advantage more caring time to young relatives. Apart from bipedalism, humans differ from chimpanzees mostly in smelling , hearing , digesting proteins , brain size , and the ability of language.
Humans' brains are about three times bigger than in chimpanzees. More importantly, the brain to body ratio is much higher in humans than in chimpanzees, and humans have a significantly more developed cerebral cortex , with a larger number of neurons.
The mental abilities of humans are remarkable compared to other apes. Humans' ability of speech is unique among primates. Humans are able to create new and complex ideas , and to develop technology, which is unprecedented among other organisms on Earth.
Although humans appear hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head, underarms and pubic area , the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see.
The dental formula of humans is: Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short, relatively flush canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young individuals. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth , with some individuals having them congenitally absent.
Like all mammals, humans are a diploid eukaryotic species. Each somatic cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes , each set received from one parent; gametes have only one set of chromosomes, which is a mixture of the two parental sets. Among the 23 pairs of chromosomes there are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system , so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. One human genome was sequenced in full in , and currently efforts are being made to achieve a sample of the genetic diversity of the species see International HapMap Project.
By present estimates, humans have approximately 22, genes. The nucleotide diversity between humans is about 0. By comparing the parts of the genome that are not under natural selection and which therefore accumulate mutations at a fairly steady rate, it is possible to reconstruct a genetic tree incorporating the entire human species since the last shared ancestor.
Each time a certain mutation SNP appears in an individual and is passed on to his or her descendants, a haplogroup is formed including all of the descendants of the individual who will also carry that mutation. By comparing mitochondrial DNA , which is inherited only from the mother, geneticists have concluded that the last female common ancestor whose genetic marker is found in all modern humans, the so-called mitochondrial Eve , must have lived around 90, to , years ago.
Human accelerated regions , first described in August ,   are a set of 49 segments of the human genome that are conserved throughout vertebrate evolution but are strikingly different in humans.
They are named according to their degree of difference between humans and their nearest animal relative chimpanzees HAR1 showing the largest degree of human-chimpanzee differences. Found by scanning through genomic databases of multiple species, some of these highly mutated areas may contribute to human-specific traits.
The forces of natural selection have continued to operate on human populations, with evidence that certain regions of the genome display directional selection in the past 15, years.
As with other mammals, human reproduction takes place as internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the male inserts his erect penis into the female's vagina and ejaculates semen, which contains sperm. The sperm travels through the vagina and cervix into the uterus or Fallopian tubes for fertilization of the ovum. Upon fertilization and implantation , gestation then occurs within the female's uterus. The zygote divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo , which over a period of 38 weeks 9 months of gestation becomes a fetus.
After this span of time, the fully grown fetus is birthed from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend various levels of personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus.
Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting 24 hours or more are not uncommon and sometimes lead to the death of the mother, the child or both. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately times greater than in developed countries.
Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age The human life span can be split into a number of stages: The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Humans are one of the few species in which females undergo menopause. It has been proposed that menopause increases a woman's overall reproductive success by allowing her to invest more time and resources in her existing offspring, and in turn their children the grandmother hypothesis , rather than by continuing to bear children into old age.
Evidence-based studies indicate that the life span of an individual depends on two major factors, genetics and lifestyle choices. Humans are omnivorous , capable of consuming a wide variety of plant and animal material.
In some cases, dietary restrictions in humans can lead to deficiency diseases ; however, stable human groups have adapted to many dietary patterns through both genetic specialization and cultural conventions to use nutritionally balanced food sources.
Until the development of agriculture approximately 10, years ago, Homo sapiens employed a hunter-gatherer method as their sole means of food collection.
This involved combining stationary food sources such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms, insect larvae and aquatic mollusks with wild game , which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. This change in diet may also have altered human biology; with the spread of dairy farming providing a new and rich source of food, leading to the evolution of the ability to digest lactose in some adults.
The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, have varied widely by time, location, and culture. In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. About 36 million humans die every year from causes directly or indirectly related to starvation. No two humans—not even monozygotic twins —are genetically identical. Genes and environment influence human biological variation from visible characteristics to physiology to disease susceptibility to mental abilities.
The exact influence of genes and environment on certain traits is not well understood. Most current genetic and archaeological evidence supports a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa,  with first migrations placed at 60, years ago. Compared to the great apes , human gene sequences —even among African populations—are remarkably homogeneous. The human body's ability to adapt to different environmental stresses is remarkable, allowing humans to acclimatize to a wide variety of temperatures, humidity , and altitudes.
As a result, humans are a cosmopolitan species found in almost all regions of the world, including tropical rainforests , arid desert , extremely cold arctic regions , and heavily polluted cities. Most other species are confined to a few geographical areas by their limited adaptability. There is biological variation in the human species—with traits such as blood type , cranial features , eye color , hair color and type, height and build , and skin color varying across the globe.
Human body types vary substantially. The typical height of an adult human is between 1. Adult height for each sex in a particular ethnic group approximately follows a normal distribution.
Those aspects of genetic variation that give clues to human evolutionary history, or are relevant to medical research, have received particular attention. For example, the genes that allow adult humans to digest lactose are present in high frequencies in populations that have long histories of cattle domestication, suggesting natural selection having favored that gene in populations that depend on cow milk.
Some hereditary diseases such as sickle cell anemia are frequent in populations where malaria has been endemic throughout history—it is believed that the same gene gives increased resistance to malaria among those who are unaffected carriers of the gene. Similarly, populations that have for a long time inhabited specific climates, such as arctic or tropical regions or high altitudes, tend to have developed specific phenotypes that are beneficial for conserving energy in those environments— short stature and stocky build in cold regions , tall and lanky in hot regions, and with high lung capacities at high altitudes.
Similarly, skin color varies clinally with darker skin around the equator—where the added protection from the sun's ultraviolet radiation is thought to give an evolutionary advantage—and lighter skin tones closer to the poles. The hue of human skin and hair is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins.
Human skin color can range from darkest brown to lightest peach , or even nearly white or colorless in cases of albinism. Most researchers believe that skin darkening is an adaptation that evolved as protection against ultraviolet solar radiation, which also helps balancing folate , which is destroyed by ultraviolet radiation. Light skin pigmentation protects against depletion of vitamin D , which requires sunlight to make.
Human skin also has a capacity to darken tan in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Within the human species, the greatest degree of genetic variation exists between males and females. While the nucleotide genetic variation of individuals of the same sex across global populations is no greater than 0.
The genetic difference between sexes contributes to anatomical, hormonal, neural, and physiological differences between men and women, although the exact degree and nature of social and environmental influences on sexes are not completely understood. There is a difference between body types, body organs and systems, hormonal levels, sensory systems, and muscle mass between sexes.
Women generally have a higher body fat percentage than men. Women have lighter skin than men of the same population; this has been explained by a higher need for vitamin D which is synthesized by sunlight in females during pregnancy and lactation. As there are chromosomal differences between females and males, some X and Y chromosome related conditions and disorders only affect either men or women.
Other conditional differences between males and females are not related to sex chromosomes. Even after allowing for body weight and volume, the male voice is usually an octave deeper than the female voice.
Women have a longer life span in almost every population around the world. They also have higher circulating clotting factors vitamin K , pro thrombin and platelets. These differences lead to faster healing of wounds and higher peripheral pain tolerance. Additionally, they produce more antibodies at a faster rate than males.
Hence they develop fewer infectious diseases and these continue for shorter periods. One proposed explanation is that human sexuality has developed more in common with its close relative the bonobo , which exhibits similar sexual dimorphism, is polygynandrous and uses recreational sex to reinforce social bonds and reduce aggression.
Humans of the same sex are There is extremely little variation between human geographical populations, and most of the variation that does occur is at the personal level within local areas, and not between populations.
Two randomly chosen Koreans may be genetically as different as a Korean and an Italian. Genetic data shows that no matter how population groups are defined, two people from the same population group are about as different from each other as two people from any two different population groups.
Current genetic research has demonstrated that humans on the African continent are the most genetically diverse. The genetic structure of Africans was traced to 14 ancestral population clusters.
Human genetic diversity decreases in native populations with migratory distance from Africa and this is thought to be the result of bottlenecks during human migration.
Only part of Africa's population migrated out of the continent, bringing just part of the original African genetic variety with them. African populations harbor genetic alleles that are not found in other places of the world. All the common alleles found in populations outside of Africa are found on the African continent. Geographical distribution of human variation is complex and constantly shifts through time which reflects complicated human evolutionary history.
Most human biological variation is clinally distributed and blends gradually from one area to the next. Groups of people around the world have different frequencies of polymorphic genes. Furthermore, different traits are non-concordant and each have different clinal distribution. Adaptability varies both from person to person and from population to population. The most efficient adaptive responses are found in geographical populations where the environmental stimuli are the strongest e.
Tibetans are highly adapted to high altitudes. The clinal geographic genetic variation is further complicated by the migration and mixing between human populations which has been occurring since prehistoric times.
Human variation is highly non-concordant: Skin and hair color are not correlated to height, weight, or athletic ability. Human species do not share the same patterns of variation through geography. Skin color varies with latitude and certain people are tall or have brown hair. There is a statistical correlation between particular features in a population, but different features are not expressed or inherited together.
Thus, genes which code for superficial physical traits—such as skin color, hair color, or height—represent a minuscule and insignificant portion of the human genome and do not correlate with genetic affinity.
Dark-skinned populations that are found in Africa, Australia, and South Asia are not closely related to each other. Despite pygmy populations of South East Asia Andamanese having similar physical features with African pygmy populations such as short stature, dark skin, and curly hair, they are not genetically closely related to these populations.
Due to practices of group endogamy , allele frequencies cluster locally around kin groups and lineages, or by national, ethnic, cultural and linguistic boundaries, giving a detailed degree of correlation between genetic clusters and population groups when considering many alleles simultaneously. Despite this, there are no genetic boundaries around local populations that biologically mark off any discrete groups of humans.
Human variation is continuous, with no clear points of demarcation. There are no large clusters of relatively homogeneous people and almost every individual has genetic alleles from several ancestral groups. The human brain, the focal point of the central nervous system in humans, controls the peripheral nervous system. In addition to controlling "lower," involuntary, or primarily autonomic activities such as respiration and digestion , it is also the locus of "higher" order functioning such as thought , reasoning , and abstraction.
Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While some non-human species are capable of creating structures and using simple tools —mostly through instinct and mimicry—human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time.
Humans are generally diurnal. The average sleep requirement is between seven and nine hours per day for an adult and nine to ten hours per day for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Having less sleep than this is common among humans, even though sleep deprivation can have negative health effects.
A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including reduced memory, fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort.
In dreaming humans experience sensory images and sounds, in a sequence which the dreamer usually perceives more as an apparent participant than as an observer.
Dreaming is stimulated by the pons and mostly occurs during the REM phase of sleep. Humans are one of the relatively few species to have sufficient self-awareness to recognize themselves in a mirror.
The human brain perceives the external world through the senses , and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness , and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought.
These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience , sapience , and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above.
The physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, are studied in the field of neurology , the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders.
Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence , neuropsychology , and cognitive neuroscience.
The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition , the mental processes' underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well researched areas as well.
Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism , whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology.
Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.
This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Psychologists have developed intelligence tests and the concept of intelligence quotient in order to assess the relative intelligence of human beings and study its distribution among population. Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience.
The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition , ethology , evolutionary psychology , and comparative psychology as well.
Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment.
Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of humans. Motivation is based on emotion—specifically, on the search for satisfaction positive emotional experiences , and the avoidance of conflict.
Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses.
Within psychology , conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics, motivation is often seen to be based on incentives ; these may be financial, moral, or coercive. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences. Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition that a human can have—a condition of mental and physical health.
Others define it as freedom from want and distress ; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society. Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked.
Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant , such as love, admiration , or joy , contrast with those perceived as unpleasant , like hate , envy , or sorrow.
There is often a distinction made between refined emotions that are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist.
The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy. In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and non-domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed.
However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime. For humans, sexuality has important social functions: Sexual desire or libido , is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompanied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy. The significance of sexuality in the human species is reflected in a number of physical features among them hidden ovulation , the evolution of external scrotum and among great apes a relatively large penis suggesting sperm competition in humans , the absence of an os penis , permanent secondary sexual characteristics and the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure.
Contrary to other primates that often advertise estrus through visible signs, human females do not have a distinct or visible signs of ovulation, plus they experience sexual desire outside of their fertile periods.
These adaptations indicate that the meaning of sexuality in humans is similar to that found in the bonobo , and that the complex human sexual behavior has a long evolutionary history. Human choices in acting on sexuality are commonly influenced by cultural norms which vary widely. Restrictions are often determined by religious beliefs or social customs. The pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously perverse , which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure.
According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosexual development and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process.
For Alfred Kinsey , another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation , with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual. Humans are highly social beings and tend to live in large complex social groups.
More than any other creature, humans are capable of using systems of communication for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization , and as such have created complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups.
Human groups range from the size of families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety [ clarification needed ] of values, social norms, and rituals, which together form the basis of human society.
Culture is defined here as patterns of complex symbolic behavior, i. While many species communicate , language is unique to humans, a defining feature of humanity, and a cultural universal. Unlike the limited systems of other animals, human language is open—an infinite number of meanings can be produced by combining a limited number of symbols.
Human language also has the capacity of displacement , using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but reside in the shared imagination of interlocutors. Language is central to the communication between humans, and to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. The invention of writing systems at least five thousand years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major technological advancement.
The science of linguistics describes the structure and function of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately six thousand different languages currently in use, including sign languages , and many thousands more that are extinct. The sexual division of humans into male, female, and in some societies other genders  has been marked culturally by a corresponding division of roles, norms, practices , dress, behavior, rights, duties , privileges , status , and power.
Cultural differences by gender have often been believed to have arisen naturally out of a division of reproductive labor; the biological fact that women give birth led to their further cultural responsibility for nurturing and caring for children. Gender roles have varied historically, and challenges to predominant gender norms have recurred in many societies.
All human societies organize, recognize and classify types of social relationships based on relations between parents and children consanguinity , and relations through marriage affinity.
These kinds of relations are generally called kinship relations. In most societies kinship places mutual responsibilities and expectations of solidarity on the individuals that are so related, and those who recognize each other as kinsmen come to form networks through which other social institutions can be regulated. Among the many functions of kinship is the ability to form descent groups , groups of people sharing a common line of descent, which can function as political units such as clans.
Another function is the way in which kinship unites families through marriage, forming kinship alliances between groups of wife-takers and wife-givers.
Such alliances also often have important political and economical ramifications, and may result in the formation of political organization above the community level. He knew about our stockpile of stuff and our desire to do more for the people, so he suggested we open a thrift store in Dallas, where SFC was located.
However, its vintage clothing and period items seemed to sell regardless of the economic times. People wanted vintage stuff. Having had a background in drama, and thus a love for old clothes and crazy trends, the manager turned the Treasure Box into a store that specialized in everything vintage.
The Plano and greater Dallas community have responded with overwhelming enthusiasm. We have asked our customers and supporters to back us in this effort and they have. One very lovely lady heard about what we were trying to do and drove across the Metroplex to donate items that belonged to her mother.
She was very excited about the store. The items were too elegant and valuable to give to just any thrift store or charity. The woman was glad to help us with our fund raising efforts.
She walked out with a smile, a since of satisfaction and a tax-deductible receipt. People buy vintage clothing, jewelry, shoes, costumes and other period items from all over to donate them. They bring us items found in their relatives closets, just to see our reaction to unusual, fun and weird stuff. Sometimes we think they just want to see how full we can pack the place with eclectic, random or diverse items.
The leather satchel is also common. Men's designer bags are produced by well-known companies such as Prada , Louis Vuitton , Coach , and Bottega Veneta in a variety of shapes and sizes.
As a fashion accessory, handbags can be categorized according to the silhouette of the bag, as well as the type of handle. The current popular handbag silhouettes are as of Vintage clutch with fold-over closure, made of red snakeskin. Saddle shape, with equestrian hardware detail. Tote , in this example the Birkin bag by Hermès. Clutch made from eel skin, a strong but expensive alternative to cow, sheep, goat, or pig leather.
A distinction can also be made between soft-body handbags or frame handbags, where a metal frame supports the textile or leather of the bag. Frame bags often use a kissing lock closure, with two interlocking metal beads set on the top of the frame. Kissing locks were popular on handbags during the early- to midth century, and remain popular with vintage collectors and in "retro" designs. These locks are still seen on smaller change purses.
The need to organize one's belongings is universal, thus handbags exist in differing forms in cultures around the world. People have been quite clever in thinking of ways to use the materials at hand to create their bags; this section shows many different examples of handbags. A bilum bag, used in Papua New Guinea. Bilums are made of "bush rope", cuscus fur or wool, and expand in size. A shoulder bag made of baobab tree fibres, bought in Zimbabwe in Ojibwa bag with decorative beadwork; this particular bag was probably made for a child.
Early 20th century Yoruba Diviner's bag, from the Oyo region, Nigeria. A Burmese Kachin bag or wallet. A Betel bag from West Timor , made around Called an aluk , such bags are still made. A modern handbag in a traditional Hakka Chinese -style floral fabric design. North African bag with lizard head and paws. A handbag from French designer Etienne Aigner. Bag made of recycled water sachets by Trashy Bags , Accra, Ghana From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article possibly contains original research.
Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.
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